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Describe the process of unification of Italy.

Italy was unified after numerous struggles

and movements as described below:

(1) Italy had a long history of political

fragmentation among various dynastic

states. Sardinia Piedmont was the only

one of seven states ruled by an Italian

princely house.

(2) Other regions were ruled by non-Italian

rulers. The Italian language had multiple

regional and local variations.

(3) In 1830, Giuseppe Mazzini established a

secret society called Young Italy and tried

to bring about a revolutionary uprising

but failed. Thereafter, war the only resort.

(4) Chief Minister Cavour led the movement

of unification and diplomatically joined

Sardinia-Piedmont, in an alliance with

France after defeating the Austrian forces

in 1859..

(5) Armed volunteers led by Giuseppe

Garibaldi also supported the troops

and they marched into South Italy and

the Kingdom of Two Scillies. They were

supported by peasants in driving out

Spanish rulers.

(6) After continuous struggles, Victor Emmanuel II was finally declared the king of

unified Italy in 1861.

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