Italy was unified after numerous struggles
and movements as described below:
(1) Italy had a long history of political
fragmentation among various dynastic
states. Sardinia Piedmont was the only
one of seven states ruled by an Italian
(2) Other regions were ruled by non-Italian
rulers. The Italian language had multiple
regional and local variations.
(3) In 1830, Giuseppe Mazzini established a
secret society called Young Italy and tried
to bring about a revolutionary uprising
but failed. Thereafter, war the only resort.
(4) Chief Minister Cavour led the movement
of unification and diplomatically joined
Sardinia-Piedmont, in an alliance with
France after defeating the Austrian forces
(5) Armed volunteers led by Giuseppe
Garibaldi also supported the troops
and they marched into South Italy and
the Kingdom of Two Scillies. They were
supported by peasants in driving out
(6) After continuous struggles, Victor Emmanuel II was finally declared the king of
unified Italy in 1861.